Kolmogorov flow

Visualization of the velocity field in a moderately turbulent Kolmogorov flow (spatial resolution 128^3). The  flow is sustained by a steady unidirectional force (here along the X axis)  with a monochromatic sinusoidal dependence proportional to  sin(k Y).  The sinusoidal profile is clearly reflected in the large scale velocity field in the X-Y planes (visible at the beginning and at the end of the movie).

Ice cubes

How does the shape of ice depend on the lateral and vertical confinement in a convective cell? In which conditions can we get the maximal amount of ice? How many possible equilibrium states can we observe for this system?  We have tried to rationalize these questions by means of simulations and experiments. Read about it in  Equilibrium states of the ice-water front in a differentially heated rectangular cell, Ziqi Wang, Enrico Calzavarini and Chao Sun [ https://arxiv.org/abs/2108.13253 ]  soon also on Europhys Lett.